Nanotechnologies in Water Purification


XXI CENTURY NANOTECHNOLOGIES

IN WATER PURIFICATION

 

WATER FILTERS MAGISTRA AQUA ON THE BASIS OF

HIGH REACTIVITY craphene sorbent

 

The truth about the water we drink and ways of its purification

 

Report about Nanotechnologies
in Water Purification

in Water Purification

DOWNLOAD (3.92 Mb)

 

I.WATER

It is known that more than half of all people’s illnesses are connected with consumption of poor-quality drinking water. Now there are practically no places on Earth where pure natural water, suitable for drinking can be found.

Mountain glaciers, some underground lakes and springs, lake Baikal, Antarctica and the Antarctic region –are some of the few places where pure water can be found but how much of this is accessible to modern townsmen?

Big rivers are polluted with industrial sewage, rain water contains dissolved gaseous extracts, and water from forest lakes or rivers contains huge quantities of organic substances.

Scientists consider that good quality drinking water can increase on average the duration of life of modern mankind by 20 – 25 years.

Truth About Bottled Water

Water is bottled all over the world. Quality bottled water, taken from pure natural sources, such as melting glaciers, costs between 2-10 Euros per liter, which is more expensive than, for example, petrol.

In India, bottled water is available for 10 Rp. Per litre usually presented as purified water. What does it mean – purified?

It is widely understood that there is only one sure way of deeply purifying water – the so called “reverse osmosis” process, in which water is pressed through the smallest membranes, which tear off from water practically all dissolved salts and other substances, both useful and harmful. The result of such purification is distilled or almost distilled water.

Many people wrongly assume that distilled water is ideal drinking water.

 

In reality distilled water is the strongest poison.

It is possible for man to drink water that exceeds maximum permissible concentration of copper, iron, even mercury for some length of time (with an obvious effect on his health but man will die if he drinks distilled water for more than a week. Why? Because water deprived of all dissolved substances starts to wash them away from the organism.

 

Distilled water is technical water, not for drinking.

In order to make distilled water drinkable it is mineralized, i.e. some useful salts are added, such as: calcification, magnesium sulfate, Glauber’s salts. However, mineralized distilled water enriched with some necessary minerals for the organism, strongly differs from natural water, which contains thousands of dissolved substances and microelements.

Do you think people would drink “mineralized” bottled water if they knew that the initial substance was in fact the strongest poison – distilled water?

Besides, how do you imagine this process of mineralization is organized?

All the essential minerals are added, for example some quantity of calcium, some quantity of magnesium sulfate, some quantity of Glauber’s salt to distillate. Is it possible to check up that this equipment does not fail and always correspond to the given proportion? Would it be logical to propose that failures may occur when, for example, only calcium is added or wrong quantities are added?

Even with the ideal work of mineralization using all correct equipment, the obtained water contains a very small quantity of useful salts and microelements which are not available in every drugstore.

By “reverse osmosis” vodka is made. Anyone, who has ever drunk more than a bottle of vodka, will have noticed that in the morning his bones were aching. Why? Because distillate washes salts out of the bones. People are making a great mistake if they think that buying or ordering bottled water for 10 Rp per liter they are fulfilling the bodies’ daily requirements for pure water intake.

Water distillation followed by mineralization requires great costs and therefore not all manufacturers of “drinking” water spend money on this purpose. Above we mentioned the ideal procedure for production of water by honest manufacturers, who try to follow announced technology.

Today approximately 80% of manufactured bottled water does not follow announced technology. For example, in Ukrain there are reports of hired workers from sunny countries wearing big rubber boots getting into big baths, filled with tap water, and mixing coagulant (clarifying agent) into it, letting the water settle then bottling it, attaching a label “Spring water”.


Drinking Water Purification Filters

It is not possible to drink tap water. Mineralized bottled distillate is a little better (cleaner), a little worse (it contains less useful salts) than tap water and we do not want to think about “counterfeit” water.

The question arises: is it possible to purify tap water using another way, other than “reverse osmosis”?

Until recently the best sorbent for purification and additional purification of tap water was activated carbon, including the best of industrially produced activated carbons – American granulated activated coconut carbon (GAC).

Carbon, certainly, purifies water from the wide range of impurities, but its sorbed (purifying) capability and resource are rather small.

Manufacturers of carbon filters are giving exaggerated and often untrue claims about the possibilities of their products that it sometimes seems that they want to surpass Baron Munchausen.

 

  • Why do you lie about possibilities of activated carbon? – I asked the head of one of the large  firms – manufacturers of filters.

  • My competitors lie and I lie, - was the honest answer.

 

So, in advertising of some known filters they say that carbon filters are capable of decreasing the quantity of organic mixtures in water by 100 times. In reality new carbon filters are capable of decreasing the quantity of such mixtures by only two times. Activated carbon does not absorb the smallest amount of rust (colloidal trivalent iron) and residual aluminum. Hot water is not purified by activated carbon at all.

Old carbon filters, used for a long time, do not purify but contaminate water: at entrance water is better than at exit. It happens because dirt accumulated in carbon mass is washed away.

Carbon has one more unpleasant feature – bacteria propagate well in it. That is why manufacturers of carbon filters recommend keeping their products in the refrigerator.

Small sorbtion capability and resource of carbon filters and also the fact, that some admixtures (humic acids, colloid dredges) are not sorbed by carbon, do not purify natural water with the help of carbon.

If we pour out through carbon filter, for example, unpurified water from a river, which moves through partially rusted tubes, it will occur that its resource equals to zero: yellow undrinkable water at entrance, yellowish water at exit, and still undrinkable.

If carbon could purify water no one would use “reverse osmosis”.

 

Paradoxical situation occurs: An abundance of filters of different types and many kinds of bottled water but the problem with drinking water remains unsolved.

Only new technology of water purification can solve this problem – not sand, not coagulation, not reverse osmosis.

This kind of technology appeared in 1997, when a new version of carbon was invented, which is not found in nature and was unknown to people. It is high reactivity carbon mixture – GR.

 

II. CRAPHENE SORBENT-GS

What is it – craphene sorbent?

As is well known, carbon is the most widespread element on Earth. Up to now, science knew of only three modifications of carbon – graphite (coal), diamond and the so called carbine.

The principle difference between coal, GS and diamond can be defined by their basic inner structure. By reconstructing the inner structure it is possible to obtain one modification of carbon from another. It is known that if we will use 80 000 atmosphere pressure to a particle of graphite and heat it up to 1600 ºC carbon atoms will reconstruct from graphite hexagonal plane structure to cubic diamond, i.e. we will get a real diamond.

On the contrary, if we heat a diamond in vacuum till 1600 ºC it will turn into a piece of ordinary graphite. GS differs from graphite as well as graphite differs from diamond. The essence of Petrik’s discovery is the obtaining of carbon with a principally new inner structure.

International Association of Authors of Scientific Discoveries confirmed establishment of the scientific discovery “Phenomenon of formation of nanostructural carbon complexes”  based on the results of scientific examination of discovery application № A-191 of January, 3rd, 2001.

 

 

Method of Obtaining of GS from Layered Carbon Combinations (LCC)

Prefix ‘nano’ means dimension 10-9 meter. Carbon nanolayer is a layer which thickness equals to 10-9 meter. Such atomic carbon layer is called graphene.

The structure of graphite is similar to the structure of a book where the pages are graphenes. Carbon atoms in graphenes are settled down in the form of hexagons, that is why it is said that graphenes have hexagonal structure.

Structure of Graphite

 

Bonds between graphenes are weak (when we write with a pencil we break these bonds), they are called van-der-vaals’s bonds. By simple pouring on to the graphite, this compound is capable of penetrating into interlayer graphite spaces (LCC). It can stay in this condition indefinitely and does not show itself. It is enough to blow up some critical quantity of molecules of this compound and the real chain reaction will start. It is possible to start this reaction of autocatalytic decay of compound by, for example, mechanical influence (i.e. by simple stroke), chemical influence, heating to 150 – 200 ºC, or even by a directed powerful sound. One atomic carbon layer (graphene) is separated from the general graphite mass (LCC) with every explosion of included molecule.

It seems unbelievable when as a result of an uncontrolled (!) cold (!) chain reaction, radical destruction of LCC occurs, and its volume increases by 500 times.

 

GS by the Way of Uncontrolled Cold Chain Reaction

 

A piece of graphite turns out into the finest black powder containing up to 20% of nanostructures.

Nanostructures contained in GS are not only graphenes, but also nanotubes, branched nanotubes, nanorings, nanofractals.

Imagine that you tore off a sheet from a book and left it in a dry place. After a time a dried up sheet will roll up to the most convenient form – a form of tube. The same happens with graphene, separated from the common graphite structure – it rolls up to nanotube.

Explosions of molecules of chemical connections break off not only van-der-vaals’s connections between graphenes (as a result, graphite “fluffs up” and expands by 500 times), but they also partially break off covalent connections between carbon atoms in graphenes, which results in the formation of lots and lots of free radicals – non-saturated atomic connections within the GS mass.

 

Fullerenes and nanostructures of GS

In 1985 several American scientists under the guidance of R.Smolli in spectrums of steams of carbon found out ­ the accurate peaks corresponding clusters, consisting of 60 atoms of carbon. Further ­ research has shown that these clusters actually are individual molecules. These molecules have been named fullerenes in honor of the American architect Richard Fuller who for the first time constructed a geodetic dome, consisting of hexagons and pentagons.

The discovery of the new form of carbon was awarded the Nobel Prize, and its surprising chemical ­ and physical properties have caused a continuous «fullerenes boom».

Carbon nanostructures were discovered in the course of studying the properties of fullerenes. Six years after the discovery of fullerenes, the Japanese scientist Idzhima, was investigating the deposits ­ formed on the cathode at evaporation of carbon in an electric arch, he found new carbon ­ frame forms — nanotubes. The discovery was so significant, that Idzhima remains one of the most quoted experts in this area of physics of materials.

Actually it is necessary to consider, that this discovery is the exact beginning of the opening to the nanoworld ­ predicted by the great American scientist Richard Feynman. Thirty years ago, R. Feynman predicted the existence of the nanoworld, in a speech given by Feynman he states that within the nanoworld many physical and chemical processes take place under previously unknown laws and existing laws do not apply. His speech concluded with a graceful appeal for further studies to be carried out of this nanoworld: “fellow scientists, there is an extraordinary amount of space within the nanoworld.”


Similar to mysticism, but a reality

The great Artist, Leonardo da Vinci produced drawings for Luke Patchouli’s book ‘About perfection of the world’, published at the beginning of XVI century. He drew the perfect molecule consisting of 60 atoms which ­represents the truncated icosahedron. As can be seen today a fullerene molecule is identical to da Vinci’s earlier drawings — one to one, full conformity (metrical invariant). A 500 years prediction!

 

          
Drawing of a perfect molecule Leonardo da Vinci           As we see a fullerene under an ionic microscope


Till now, nanotubes have been made in the same way as Idzhima first made: condensation of steams of carbon at arc or laser evaporation in the presence of the catalyst resulting in the formation of the frame carbon structures coagulated into one or several carbon beds.

 

Depending on purity levels, nanotubes, created in this way or other known methods, have an international market price of $300 to $1000 for 1 gram.

 

Possessing unique electrical, chemical and mechanical characteristics, nanotubes have created a new direction in material technology, nanoelektronics and applied chemistry.

In current scientific literature, bright examples of some of the exotic properties of nanotubes have been published. For example, a nanotube is 50-100 thousand times is thinner than a human hair. A piece of rope made from nanotubes long enough to stretch from the Earth to the Moon, can be coiled on a poppy granule and yet have the strength to be used a cable for a passenger lift. However at the above-stated costs of nanotubes, the manufacturing of say for example bullet-proof vests ­at a weight of ten grams would prove uneconomical.

Only this way of lower price production and quantitative characteristics is industrial.

Basic Physicochemical Properties of GS

GS is chemically inert, electrically conductive, hydrophobic (wetting contact angle is more than 90 degrees), steady in a corrosion environment and an ecologically clean substance. Carbon content is not less than 99.4%, packed density – 0.01 – 0.001 g. /cm³ (depending the way of production). Specific surface area – 2000 m2 per 1 g. Category temperature range: from -60ºC to +3000 ºC. Recovery of adjoined substance is to 98%.

 

GS and Thermo Extended Graphite

Note, that the method of graphite destruction by the way of breaking off van-der-vaals’s connections has been known since the 1940’s. This method is as follows: LCC are wetted with sulfuric acid with oxidizers – nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, potassium dichromate and others. Then the obtained mass is heated up to 2000 ºC during 2 – 3 seconds (thermal shock).

Sulfuric acid molecules do not have time to evaporate with such sharp heating. Sharp bulking of sulfuric acid during heating “fluffs up” LCC, as a result of which is obtained a substance which externally looks like GS, which is called thermo extended graphite (TEG).

It is possible to distinguish GS from TEG by its odor: GS is odorless, and TEG has strong acid odor (oddments of sulfuric acid can not be removed from TEG mass in any way). Besides, TEG is grey, but GSis deep black.

 

Note, that in spite of the increasing sorbent ability of TEG in comparison with ‘un-fluffed up’ carbon combinations (due to large sorbing area) it is forbidden to use TEG as sorbent in many countries – because of the acid oddments, which can not be removed even with high temperature treatment. Activity of these oddments is so high that TEG is transported in corrosion-preventive containers.

 

Some people, hearing about GS think that GS is approximately the same as TEG which is not true. TEG is not a new carbon modification, it is an already known modification – graphite, only “fluffed up”, sharply increased in volume owing to the breaking off of van-der-vaals’s connections. Covalent connections between carbon atoms in TEG are preserved.

The analytic center of the chemical faculty, Moscow State University named after Lomonosov M.V. carried out comparative analysis of sorbed properties of GS and TEG. In expert’s report (signed 20.10.2000 by professor Shpigun O.A. – the head of the Center) according to the data of this analysis a conclusion was reached indicating that “GS has essentially higher sorption parameters throughout all components that is why GS is a unique sorbent for complex purification of drinking water as well as industrial sewages”.

 

GS as a Sorbent

The GS mass is composed of partially broken covalent connections. There are a great number of these unsaturated inter atomic carbon connections situated all around carbon hexagonals.

These unsaturated inter atomic carbon connections (free radicals) getting in contact with a very wide group of substances (so to say – with all insoluble and some soluble in water admixtures) keep them in GS mass, but water molecules pass through. Best of all are withheld admixtures affined to GS as to chemical composition (the base is carbon), for example, mineral oils and ether-soluble substances.

It is very important that GS does not react with sorbing substances, i.e. filtered water should not contain any substances, which were not present at the entrance: GS, which was not filtered by shims may be present in small quantities, however GS is not dangerous for the body. Some substances formed as a result of GS chemical reaction and one or another admixtures (or chemical reaction between admixtures themselves where GS is catalyst) will not be present.

Although GS withholds admixtures due to free radicals on molecular and atomic levels by electromechanical methods (and not by mechanical methods) they do not react.

The connection of GS and sorbed admixtures are rather strong in that they are held within the GS mass, but weak enough to separate admixtures from GS under certain conditions.

So, for example, GS which sorbed oil from oil containing water (1 g of GS sorbs approximately 80 g of oil) can be reclaimed by simple squeezing (press, centrifuge and so on). After squeezing GS looses sorbing ability to 30 – 40% (part of oil will remain in GS mass) but it will continue to ‘work’.

 

Unique sorbed properties of GS

Research Institute of Physics of Fullerenes and New Materials produced the following data: Sorbed capacity of GS material by liquid phase of inflammables and poisonous substances (see table 1). In 2004, Sierra Analytical Labs.Inc. (USA, California) conducted a comparative analysis of sorption capacity of GS and the best of all activated carbons – coconut granulated activated carbon (GAC) presented on American market (see Table 2).

From Table 2 it is seen that 1 g of GS excels 1` g of GAC by sorption capacity 100 - 300 times!

 

GS as a Filter

When wetting GS forms a mass which has a greater hydraulic resistance than activated carbon has. In this mass even the smallest clouds are “tangled” (mechanically) like in an extremly dense net. This means that the GS mass of some centimeters thickness works not only like a sorbent, withholding admixtures with the help of unsaturated inter atomic carbon connections, but also like a filter which mechanically withholds even the smallest admixtures and clouds. The GS-filter works similar to an ordinary membrane household filter.

Similar means “not the same”, but much better. The fact is that membranes of ordinary filters withhold admixtures only with plane (or some planes), but GS withholds them by volume.

For example: in the gardening association “Dunai” (Vsevolozhsk district, Leningrad region) drinking water running through partially rusted pipes has a yellowish color not only because of gumous but also because of undissolved iron (rust). This rust consists of such small particles that they may only be withheld using a membrane with cells of 3 microns. The membrane filter which purifies this water got blocked after only 50 liters, and the water stopped running.

GS filter standing nearby fully purified the water from all admixtures, including the smallest rust in volume of 25 m³.

The blocking of the membrane or system of membranes of other water filters with small admixtures will occur with a much smaller volume of water than the GS filter.

It is necessary not only to wash out membrane filters regularly (it is clear that the cost of water purification with systems of reverse wash out are rather great), but replace more often than cartridges of GS filters which do not require wash out at all.

 

How GS Purifies Water from Bacterium and Viruses

The work of GS as a filter allows the purification of water from microorganisms – bacterium and viruses – and this seems paradoxical to many people.

The fact is that microorganisms cannot swim in the water like fish or swimmers in a pool. They have “to sit” on micro rafts – some kind of small-sized particle. As GS withholds all kind of particles, even the smallest, together they withhold all kinds of microorganisms: they remain within the GS thickness, and water is purified from any kind of bacterium and viruses.

However, microorganisms lying in the ramified structure of GS can continue to multiply. That is why in order to stop the multiplication of organisms within the GS thickness it is necessary to take some others measures, for example to silver GS, as is used in all GS filters for drinking water.

Silvered GS has a great advantage as compared with others silvered sorbents (for example, silvered activated carbon) not only in effectiveness of protection from bacterium and viruses (microorganisms can pass silvered carbon on its “raft”, but it can not pass GS), but also the fact that silver (silver ions) are washed away into filtered water in very small quantities (after silvered GS only 0.005 mg/l of silver is found in water when maximum permissible coefficient is 10 times more, i.e. 0.05 mg/l). This is because silver (like any other admixture) is kept in GS mass. The smallest parts of silver pass through carbon into filtered water (this is contamination of water with heavy metals), through GS this does not happen.


  GS as a sorbent and filter surpasses all world known equipment in water purification sphere

With a single filtration of drinking water turbidity decreases by 25-60 times, the number of fluidized particles is reduced – by 10 – 30 times, it achieves a high level removal of sulfates, sulfides, fluorides, chlorides, nitrites, ammonium nitrogen, iron, zinc, copper, aluminum, manganese, lead, molybdenum and free chlorine.

GS has a unique property: when solution passes through the GS layer of 10 - 15 cm thickness biological consumption of oxygen (BCO) decreases by 2 times. Only special bacterial filters can work similarly. The cost of such filter, even low-powered (2 l/min productivity) ‘PENTA PURE’ an American production, costs approximately $1000.00.

Comparative analysis between characteristics of the ‘GS’ filter and the ‘Barrier’ filter (USA) revealed the superiority of the first over the second by decreasing of the following features:

  • colourity – by 5 times;

  • content of fluidized substances – by 7 times;

  • turbidity – by 16 times;

  • content of iron – by 187 times.

In some cases the superiority of GS filters over other filters is not multiple but absolute.

 

So, for example, no one filter in the world can completely purify water from gumous. GS filter can, and other filters can not, make humic (marsh) water drinkable– an absolute advantage.

When purifying industrial sewages with GS filters it was determined that they sorb oil products and ether soluble substances to the levels less than maximum allowed concentration (multiplicity of purification is more than 1000).

GS removes many of the cations very effectively, including copper ( 30 times), iron ( 3 times), ammonium ( 2 – 3 times), vanadium ( 5 times), manganese ( 2 times), phosphates ( 35 times), organic and non organic anions, including sulfides ( 6 times), fluorides (5 times), nitrates (3 times), as well as decreasing the number of fluidized particles by more than 100 times.

Only very few complex industrial filtering units (consisting of three and more different filters) have such universal ability – simultaneously purifying waste waters from anions, cations and organic substances.

GS purifies water effectively from undissolved admixtures and badly from solved ones. If GS could also effectively remove molecular solutions from water, it would be unadvisable to be used for purification of drinking water: as a result - distilled water. The fact is that in water after GS filtration natural salts and microelements remain.

Substances dissolved in water usually pass through GS filters (with the exception of, for example, dissolved big organic molecules, which are partially held by GS). There are also harmful dissolved admixtures in water and in order to purify water from dissolved admixtures they should be transferred into an undissolved formula before passing water through GS filters.

For example, to decrease the content of salts , calcium and magnesium in water (hardness), and also bivalent (solved) iron it is necessary beforehand to use a filter with ion-exchange pitches, i.e. to act thus as it is done in the whole world.

 

‘GS’ filters provide a principally new level of water purification in which water not only becomes crystal pure but acquires curative properties.

 

It has been proven that  has healing properties not only when applied to wounds, burns, trophic ulcers but also when ingested. Research was carried out by scientists of the Army Medical College (Saint Petersburg), The Institute of Emergency Aid named after Djanelidze (Saint Petersburg) and The Centre of Extreme Medicine (Moscow).

The wound healing effect of GS powder results in decreasing of fatal outcomes, reduction of time of sharp inflammation, creation of wound medium unfavorable for active vegetation of microbe flora.

Based on the facts above there is evidence to suggest that, (investigations in this area are being continued,) water passed through GS filter has a similar influence on the body.

Above we showed how sharp changes in carbon properties depend on its inner structure changing. Properties of water also depend on the inner structure. To the question “How many molecules are there in the lake?” one can answer “One”. This is one great molecule. Such are the fantastically strong intermolecular connections of water.

GS filtration of water partially destroys intermolecular connections of water or, in other words, partially destroys water clusters. Thereby surface area increases sharply causing the biological activity of drinking water to increase.

 

Special research, undertaken in Saint Petersburg at ‘The Research Institute of Physical Culture’, showed that water obtained by the way of GS filtration of ordinary tap water acquires unusual properties both for tap and bottled water: increase in work capacity, promoting the processes of effective recovery of the body’s power after physical activity as well as the raising of immunity of the organism.

 

People, who regularly drink usual tap water after GS filtration practically stop experiencing flu and other infectious diseases (the result of immunity raising), their pressure normalizes. Some people have experienced hearing improvement (the reason for this remains unknown).

 

Bouquet of flowers in GS filtered water lasts much longer than in any other water.

 

Objective witnesses such as cats and dogs have proven the benefits of GS filtered water. If an animal is given different plates of water to make a choice with tap, any bottled and GS filtered water it will choose the last. The cups may be changed: for example, pour GS filtered water in the cup where the bottled water was, the result will not change: having a choice, an animal will drink GS filtered water.

The necessary to change aquarian water once a week is common knowledge. For that it is necessary to settle tap water for several days in a separate container. It was noticed that aquarian fish (both small and big) felt perfectly at home in GS filtered water (there was no need to settle it first). Water also can be changed less often.

GS filtration changes the inner structure of water and this change does not come only to the breaking of water clusters.

It is known that a water molecule has the following structure:

 

Angle ά in ideally pure natural water (for example, in water from melting mountain glaciers) equals to 108º. It is not casual, as with ά = 108º relation of segments OH/HH equals to “golden proportion”, i.e. 0.618.

If ά equals even to 109º or 107º (i.e. significantly deviates from 108º) properties of water sharply decrease.

It is amazing, but GS filtration of water makes angle ά equal to 108º!

 

Probably, that is why water after GS filtration gets the specific blue color (even in the case when initial water was yellow or rusty). Water from melting mountain glaciers has the same specific blue colour.

Note, that distilled water is colourless.

 

Fields of Application of GS

Today defined fields for application of GS, where its superiority over competed materials is certain and sometimes reaches ordinary values.

  • neutralization of toxic wastages and destruction of chemical agents;

  • high quality purification of drinking water;

  • localization and extinguishing of burning toxic and combustible liquids on land and water surface;

  • liquidation of accidental spillages of oil and oil products on land and water surface, corresponding soil recultivation;

  • creation of medicinal preparation;

  • removal from tobacco smoke poly aromatic hydrocarbons which are the strongest cancerogene

  • water holding in sand and solonetzic grounds;

  • thermal and anti-corrosive prevention of thermal pipe mains and boiler equipment;

  • purification of waste waters.

 

GS is recommended:

By the Ministry of Nature Resources of the Russian Federation (RF) (order № 550 from 02.09.02) as a material for purification of environment from hydro carbonic contaminations and in the systems of drinking water supply,

  • by Ministry of Health of RF,

  • by Research Institute of Fire-Prevention defense of Ministry of Extreme Situations RF,

  • by Ministry of Defense of RF,

  • by Rosaviakosmos of RF.

 

In the year 2000 in accordance with the decision by the administration of the troops of radiation, chemical and biological defense of Ministry of Defense of RF were conducted scientific researches on opportunity of using GS by providing safety of processes of chemical weapon destruction.

Conclusion of the leading specialists in this sphere says: “Adsorptive ability of GS surpasses similar parameter of the best carbon-catalyst KT-1 used in gas mask:

  • by yprite – more than 20 times,

  • by sarin, soman and lewisite – more than 25 times,

  • by V-gases – more than 45 times.

 

Material GS is easily regenerated and does not require recycling in its ordinary understanding, as after repeated use it can be pressed into briquettes and burned as high-energy fuel, corresponding to the best samples of coal as to calorific ability.

 

III. FILTERS ‘MAGISTRA AQUA

Holding “Golden Formula” designs filters modeled on the GS base for different quantities of domestic water purification and for filtration of industrial sewages.

GS has sanitary and epidemiologic conclusion № 77.01.03.216.П.29141.12 of 16.12.04, which allows GS to be used as a filling of filters both for purification (after purification) of drinking water and filters for purification of industrial sewages.

Filters ‘Magistra Aqua’ are subdivided into two classes – bulk and pressure.

 

Bulk Filters ‘Magistra Aqua’

Bulk Bactericidal Filter ‘Magistra Aqua’ – “Make Yourself”

This is the cheapest variant of bulk GS filter, which one can make himself from any plastic bottle with capacity from 1L.

The delivery set of “Make yourself” filter includes a set of special filtered cotton wool and a tight packing of silvered GS. Filtered cotton wool is divided into pieces which are simply set in a plastic bottle. On the first layer of filtered cotton wool a layer of GS is filled, then two layers of cotton wool are added. This “sandwich” is pressed by the cut bottle bottom with holes made in it. The whole process of making a filter “Make yourself” takes no more than a minute.

 

 

Scheme of assembling of “Make Yourself” Filter

  • Reservoir for filtered water
  • Cut bottom
  • Layer of filtered cotton wool
  • GS with silvered covering
  • Layer of filtered cotton wool

 

Filter “Make yourself” is invaluable in those cases when it is necessary to make hundreds of thousands of temporary bulk filters. These filters can provide pure drinking water to regions that experience natural disasters.

In January, 2005 at the request of the Indian Government, hundreds of thousands of ‘Magistra Aqua-make yourself filters’ were sent to the regions most affected by the tsunami in order to provide the population with drinkable water and to prevent the spreading of infectious diseases.

On September, 15th, 2005 at the request of the U.S. Government, an amount of bulk filters ‘Magistra Aqua’ were sent as humanitarian ­aid to the State of Louisiana which had suffered from a devastating hurricane.


Pressure filters

Cartridges for Filters Housings “Big Blue 10” and “20” Working Under Pressure

Housings for filters “Big Blue 10” and “20” are distributed all over the world. However the cartridges for these filters do not have the GS filling.

The Holding ‘Golden Formula’ manufactures cartridges with the GS filling compatible with typical housings of “Big Blue 10” and “20”. These filters can be used for the purification of drinking water in the kitchen, bathroom, café, school, and kindergarten.

 

                   

Filters “Big Blue 10” and “20” and cartridge “Magistra Aqua” for them


 

Parameters of Filters “Magistra Aqua” Working under Pressure of 1 to 6 Atmospheres and Manufactured on the Base of “Big Blue 10” and “20” Housings

Maximum productivity: 0.5 m³/h for “Big Blue 20” and 0.25 m³/h for “Big Blue 10”.

Optimum productivity: 0.25 m³/h for “Big Blue 20” and 0.125 m³/h for “Big Blue 10”.

Resource for purification of average quality drinking water is 20 m³ for “Big Blue 20” and 10 m³ for “Big Blue 10”.

Productivity and resource drop proportionally to the average number of admixtures in the initial water. To increase productivity and resource it is recommended to use a coarse filter, for example, sand or membrane before the GS filter.

Pressure filters ‘Magistra Aqua’, as well as bulk filters, are self locked: if the flow of purified water stops or hardly flows (i.e. sharp loss of pressure occurs in filter) this means it is necessary to change cartridges.

As well as bulk filters, pressure filters “Magistra Aqua” do not let the accumulated impurities held within the cartridges contaminate the filtered water.

 

Industrial Filters ‘Magistra Aqua’


Industrial filters “Magistra Aqua” with productivity of 2 m³/h can be made from some existing housings: it is necessary to put a greater density of (shims) cotton wool to prevent GS from washing out) and fill them with GS. The most effective are the industrial filters designed especially for GS filling.


 

Patented Industrial GS Filter, made from Stainless Steel

 

The productivity of this ‘Magistra Aqua’ industrial filter is 3 m³/h. Resource for purification of average quality drinking water – 250 m³.

Industrial filters “Magistra Aqua” may be used for the production of high quality bottled water, may be fixed in a cellar of a house, hotel or maybe used in a system of water preparation on the food industries enterprises.

It is very important to point out, that GS filters can purify hot water too. Activated carbon does not purify hot water at all. In this regard GS surpasses it absolutely!

Industrial GS filters can also be made from low pressure polythene.


Purification of Industrial Sewages and Oil Containing Waters

All the above mentioned filters are suitable for purification of industrial sewages.

Today in Ukrain the purification of industrial sewage is not properly executed. Enterprises must pay penalties at worst, for dropping flows with exceeding maximum permissible concentration by the most parameters into water drain or into natural pools.

That is why GS filtration of industrial sewages is of interest first of all for countries where ecology is followed properly.

In purification of oil containing waters, possibilities of filters ‘Magistra Aqua’ are simply unique. The industrial filter ‘Magistra Aqua’ can decrease the content of oil and oil products in water from 1600 mg/l till 0.3 mg/l for one filtration!

Those countries which follow purification of water from oil, for example in ports, spend a lot of money for this purification.

To bring up content of oil products to 1 mg/l (this is norm in western countries) is very difficult. Centrifuge will purify oil containing water till 15 – 30 mg/l. but after centrifuge in water remains colloid oil. It is required cascade construction to remove it. But GS filter removes practically all products from water including colloid ones.

 

It sounds too good to be true but the fact is: to purify all oil containing waters, for example at Helsinki port where there is a lot of oil spillage, only a small amount of GS powder is needed, (e.g. a car’s luggage compartment is enough space).

 

Filters “Magistra Aqua” both bulk and pressure correspond to all state sanitary and epidemiologic rules and norms.

Sanitary and epidemiological conclusion of State Sanitary and epidemiological Service of RF № 78.22.62485.П.000511.02.05 from 04.02.2005, Certificate of Conformance № РОСС RU.AЯ56.В11814 of 28.02.2005.

 

Table 1

Substance \ Absorbing capacity of 1 g of GS in substance grams

Nitric acid 50         Propylene alcohol 30
Acetonitrile 45   Vegetable oil 45
Gasoline A-70 30   Sulfuric acid 40
Benzol 35   Turpentine 30
Butyl alcohol 35   Toluene 40
Hexane 25   Carbon tetrachloride 50
Heptyl 20   Xylenes 40
Diesel oil 40   Light oil fractions 30
Dichloromethane 30   Oil dies 100
Ethylene dichloride 35   Machine oil 50
Kerosene (T1) 40   Phosphoric acid 70
Crude oil 80   Chloroform 30
Oil sludge 50   Cyclohexanone 30

 

Table 2

Ru / En

Government
programm 
«Ukraine Clean Water»

(044) 536-57-84

(067) 235-49-75

   Log in Contact info